చైనా అని సాధారణంగా పిలువబడే పీపుల్స్‌ రిపబ్లిక్‌ ఆఫ్‌ చైనా… తూర్పు ఆసియాలో అతిపెద్ద దేశం. ప్రపంచంలోని అతిపెద్ద దేశాలలో ఒకటిగా చైనా 130 కోట్ల (1.3 బిలియన్‌) పైగా జనాభాతో ప్రపంచంలోని అతి పెద్ద జనాభా గల దేశంగా ప్రసిద్ధి చెందింది. బీజింగ్‌ రాజధానిగా ఉన్న చైనాలో అతిపెద్ద నగరం షాంఘై. గడులు… గీతలు… బొమ్మలుగా ఉండే చైనా భాష చాలా చిత్రంగా, సంక్లిష్టంగా ఉంటుంది. చైనా వారీ భాషను ‘మాండరిన్‌’ అని పిలుస్తారు. అక్కడి నిఘంటువుల ప్రకారం చూస్తే సుమారు 56,000 గుర్తులు (కేరక్టర్లు) ఉన్నాయని చెబుతారు. ఎక్కువగా మాత్రం 3,000 గుర్తులు వాడతారు.

ఇవి వస్తే 99 శాతం చైనా భాషను నేర్చేసుకున్నట్టే. చైనా అక్షరాలు రాయడానికి కనీసం 1 నుంచి గరిష్టంగా 64 గీతలు గీయాల్సి ఉంటుంది! చైనాలో మెజారిటీ ప్రజలు మాట్లాడే ‘మండారిన్‌’ భాషను మన సీబీఎస్‌ఈ పాఠ్య ప్రణాళికలో చేర్చనున్నారు. పీపుల్స్‌ రిపబ్లిక్‌ ఆఫ్‌ చైనా, ప్రపంచంలోనే ఎక్కువ సంఖ్యలో సైన్యాన్ని నిర్వహిస్తుంది. దీనిని పీపుల్స్‌ లిబరేషన్‌ ఆర్మీ (ప్రజా స్వాతంత్య్ర సైన్యం) అని పిలుస్తారు. దీనిలో నావికా దళం, వాయు దళం ఉన్నాయి. 2005లో దీని బడ్జటు సుమారుగా మూడువేల కోట్ల డాలర్లు (పదిహేను వేల కోట్ల రూపాయలు) కానీ ఈ బడ్జటు విదేశీ ఆయుధాలు, ఇతర పరిశోధనల ఖర్చు కాకుండా! విమర్శకులు ఈ బడ్జెట్టును ఇంకా చాలా ఎక్కువగా చెపుతారు.

ఇటీవలి రాండ్‌ అను సంస్థ ప్రకారం ఈ ఖర్చు రెండు రెట్లు ఎక్కువ! ఇది అమెరికా సంయుక్త రాష్టాల నాలుగు వందల బిలియన్‌ డాలర్ల తరువాత ప్రపంచంలో రెండవ స్థానంలో నిలుస్తుంది. దీనికి చక్కని అణు ఆయుధాలు, ఇతర ప్రధాన ఆయుధాలు ఉన్నప్పటికీ, బలహీనమైన నావికాదళం, విమాన వాహక నౌకలు, వైమానిక దళంలోని పాత విమానాల వల్ల, తక్కువ శిక్షణా సమయం వల్ల దీనిని ప్రపంచపు సూపర్‌ పవరుగా గుర్తించారు. కానీ ఓ ప్రాంతీయ శక్తిగా మంచి గుర్తింపు ఉన్నది. భారత్‌కు పాక్‌ కంటే చైనా నుంచే ఎక్కువ ప్రమాదముందని భారత వాయుసేనాధిపతి హోమీమేజర్‌ అభిప్రాయపడ్డారు.

భారత్‌-చైనాల మధ్య శాంతి ఒప్పందం కుదిరినప్పటికీ అరుణాచల్‌ప్రదేశ్‌పై చైనా వివాదస్పద వ్యాఖ్యలు చేస్తున్నది. మన దేశంలో జంతువుల పేర్లతో రాశులున్నట్లు, చైనాలో 12 సంవత్సరాలకు జంతువుల పేర్లతో పిలుస్తారు. అవి మూషికం, వృషభం, పులి, కుందేలు, డ్రాగన్‌, పాము, గుర్రం, గొర్రె, కోతి, కోడిపుంజు, కుక్క, పంది. వీరికి 1972, 1984, 1996, 2008 మూషిక నామ సంవత్సరాలు. ఫిబ్రవరి 7 నుండి చైనా కాలెండర్‌ ప్రకారం కొత్త సంవత్సరం మొదలౌతుంది. క్రీస్తుకు పూర్వం 200 సంవత్సరాల క్రితమే హ్యాన్‌ చక్రవర్తి కాలంలో కలపగుజ్జు నుంచి పేపరస్‌ పేరుతో కాగితం తయారీని కనిపెట్టారు. మొట్టమొదటిసారి ముద్రణాయంత్రం తయారు చేసింది చైనా వారే.

దీనికి ‘ఉడ్‌బ్లాక్‌ ప్రింటింగ్‌’ అని పేరుపెట్టారు. 220వ సంవత్సరంలో రూపొందించిన ఈ యంత్రం ఆధారంగానే ప్రింటింగ్‌ విధానం అందుబాటులోకి వచ్చింది. ఓడలకు దారి చూపించే దిక్సూచి (కంపాస్‌)ని చైనీయులు 1044లోనే కనుగొన్నారు. భూమి ఉత్తర, దక్షిణ ధ్రువాల్ని కూడా దీని ద్వారానే గుర్తించారు. తొమ్మిదో శతాబ్దంలో కనిపెట్టిన గన్‌పౌడర్‌ ఆధారంగానే టపాసులు (బాణాసంచా) పుట్టుకొచ్చాయి. ప్రపంచం చీనాంబరాలుగా చెప్పుకునే పట్టు వస్త్రాలను క్రీస్తుకు పూర్వం 3630 సంవత్సరాల క్రితమే చైనా అల్లింది. ప్రపంచ వాణిజ్యంలో పైచేయి సాధించింది. క్రీస్తుశకం 6వ శతాబ్దంలో ఇద్దరు యూరోపియన్లు సన్యాసుల వేషంలో చైనా వెళ్ళి చేతి కర్రల్లో పట్టుపురుగులను తీసుకొచ్చేవరకూ ఆ రహస్యం ప్రపంచానికి తెలియనేలేదు. ఇప్పటికి 3000 ఏళ్ళ క్రితమే ఓ చైనా రాజు తన కోటను చుట్టుముట్టిన సైనికులు ఎంత దూరంలో ఉన్నారో కనుగొనడానికి తొలి గాలిపటాన్ని ఎగరేశాడనే కథ ఉంది.

రోజూ పళ్ళు తోముకునే అలవాటును నేర్పించింది చైనావాళ్ళే అని చెప్పవచ్చు. 1400లోనే వాళ్ళు టూత్‌బ్రెష్‌తో తోముకున్నారు! ఐస్‌క్రీం పుట్టింది కూడా ఇక్కడే. క్రీస్తు పూర్వం 2000 నాడే పాలతో కలిపిన బియ్యాన్ని మంచులో ఉంచి తినేవారు… తేదీలు, ముహూర్తాలు చూస్తే క్యాలెండర్‌ని కూడా క్రీ.పూ. 2600 ల్లోనే రూపొందించారు. చైనీయులు క్రీస్తుకు వందేళ్ళ క్రితమే టీ తయారీని కనిపెట్టి, క్రీస్తుశకం 200 ఏళ్ళకల్లా ప్రజల్లోకి టీ ఒక పానీయంగా ప్రాచుర్యం లోనికి తెచ్చారు. ముడుచుకునే గొడుగును పరిచయం చేసింది కూడా చైనీయులే. క్రీస్తుపూర్వం 600 సంవత్సరాలకే ఇత్తడి ఊసలతో ఇలాంటి గొడుగు చేశారు.

ఇంకా చెప్పాలంటే పరిశ్రమల్లో ఉపయోగపడే బ్లాస్ట్‌ఫర్నేస్‌, బోర్‌హోల్‌డ్రిల్లింగ్‌, ఫోర్క్‌లు, ఇండియన్‌ ఇంక్‌, దశలవారీగా ప్రయాణించే రాకెట్లు, రెస్టారెంట్లో మెనూ పద్ధతి, భూకంపాలను కనిపెట్టే సీస్మోమీటర్‌, టాయ్‌లెట్‌పేపర్‌, పిస్టన్‌పంప్‌, క్యాస్ట్‌ఐరన్‌, సస్పెన్షన్‌ బ్రిడ్జి, ఇంధనాలుగా బొగ్గు, సహజవాయువులను వాడే ప్రక్రియ… ఇలాంటివెన్నింటికో తొలి రూపాలు చైనాలో రూపుదిద్దుకున్నాయి.

ప్రపంచ వ్యాప్తంగా 70 శాతం ఆట బొమ్మలు చైనా నుంచే ఉత్పత్తి అవుతున్నాయి. ప్రపంచంలోనే మొట్టమొదటిసారి కాగితాల రూపంలో డబ్బుని అందుబాటులోకి తెచ్చిన దేశం ఇదే. ప్రస్తుతం చైనాలో డబ్బుని రెన్‌మిన్‌బీ అంటారు. అంటే ప్రజల సొమ్ము అని అర్థం. రూపాయలకి యువాన్‌, జియావో, ఫెన్‌ లాంటి పేర్లు ఉన్నాయి.

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